Did you know that we owe it to the British? Just imagine, until the XVIII century mankind coped with the need for a pot, and its contents poured out just on the street. And that was some 200 years ago!
It’s fair to say that in 1596, Sir John Harington assembled a flush tank toilet for the Queen of England. This device was the prototype of all modern types of toilets. John solemnly called it “Ajax” and even published a book on such a pathos occasion (“Ajax Metamorphosis”). Later he started selling it for six shillings, which was quite expensive at the time. The invention did not take hold predictably. But not because of Harington’s greed, but because there was no sewerage in the English capital.
Then extended a long 150 years of stagnation, until in 1738 there was a toilet with a flush valve type. And in 1775, a watchmaker from London, Alexander Cummings developed a hydraulic valve, which solved the annoying problem of unpleasant smell. He got a patent for his invention.
But the name “UNITAS” was given to the device much later. It was aided by a Thomas Twiford. In 1884, he tested various types of toilets and eventually presented a product with dosed plums. It consisted of a faience bowl and a wooden seat. Of course, the design was not created from scratch, only improved. However, he was the one who used the word that first appeared at the London International Healthcare Exhibition. “UNITAS”, that is, “unity” in Latin.
There are many ways to classify these types. One of the main ones is installation. Floor models are time-tested classics. Maybe that’s why the company specializing in them is called American Standard. The second one is a Kohler.
Their model 288DA114.020 is in incredible demand. It attaches to the floor with the plugs that come with it and has a number of advantages:
- Installation does not require much time or additional financial costs.
- Simple operation.
- no unpleasant surprises. Communications are open and if the tank leaks, you will immediately notice it.
- Easy to repair and change parts.
- Takes up more space than hanging models.
- Difficult to clean a room. The area near the “pedestal” is difficult to clean.
American Standard 288DA114.020
The pendant or wall-mounted models also have an army of admirers. Such models include installation, a bowl with a set of mounts, a flat cistern, and a drain control button.
Installation is a metal frame that is attached to the wall (in some cases, to the floor) and to the bowl. This ensures a concealed connection of the toilet to the sewer and water supply system. Thus, all plumbing tricks are hidden behind a partition. The bowl without a foot is fixed by means of two long carbide studs, which resemble anchors. It is placed close to the wall, which creates a feeling of space.
- Quick cleaning. You don’t have to mess around with the rag around the toilet for too long.
- Saves space. The device leaves a lot of free space, which is very important for smaller apartments.
- A wide range of different toilets in all kinds of styles.
- Installation does not require to breach the integrity of the flooring.
- Installation at a height that will be convenient for all family members.
- Many firms sell bowls and frames individually. This opens the way to a variety of design solutions.
- Some wc toilets are equipped with a pneumatically actuated drain button, which ensures smooth pressing.
- The sound of the water is almost unheard.
- Labor-intensive installation. Additional costs are required to secure all parts and make a false wall.
- Difficult to repair, as access to communications is difficult.
- High cost.
Obviously, managers of plumbing companies distinguish a special category of buyers who do not buy pendant types only because of fear. It seems to them that at some point the toilet may just fall to the floor. However, these fears are in vain – products can withstand almost half a ton of weight. The main thing is to follow all the rules during installation.
A side toilet. Something between the first and second option. The communications are hidden in the wall, but the bowl is on the floor. Therefore, the device does not make much noise and requires a decorative door to access the interior parts. There is no free space between the floor and the cistern, which makes cleaning a bit difficult. Sometimes it’s called – tankless toilets
American Standard 2856.128.020-6299-0
There’s a separate corner toilet. It can be either suspended or floor-standing. This device has a triangular shape of the drain tank, but it does not affect the volume. The model saves a lot of space. In addition, if you add corner furniture to the bathroom, it will give the room an original rounded shape.
Components of the toilet can be arranged in different ways. The classic type of device is a separate toilet. There are other names for toilet: two-section, collapsible. In this case, the drain cistern and bowl are connected with a plastic (metal) pipe, thanks to which the upper part can be at any height. The position of the tank ensures a good drain speed (the higher the tank, the faster the flow).
One of the most popular models in this category is the TOTO CST744SL#01 This is a powerful instrument made of vitreous porcelain with an industrial-grade G-Max flushing system.
- Maximum ease of installation. If you decide to install the toilet yourself, you will not need much knowledge or serious effort.
- Easy repair. All components can be easily found in the sanitary ware store and replaced if necessary.
- Affordable price. Among all types of toilets, this category is the most inexpensive.
- Cleaning requires more time due to the small parts at the joints.
- The noise of water during flushing and pick-up.
Some customers think separate toilets are old-fashioned. But it’s an interesting design to beat. For example, with the help of lamps from an antique store or elegant chain for a cistern. For inspiration, you can scroll through vintage toilets pics. They will definitely appeal to fans of the style of Shebby Chic and Provenance. The category of two-section models also includes a toilet pack. Its characteristic difference is that the drain cistern is mounted directly on a bowl equipped with a special shelf. It is old but great types of toilets.
The more modern type of construction is monoblock. It appeared much later, as a result of attempts to reduce the number of connections in sanitary engineering. Thanks to it, the water intake and outlet devices are in one solid body. “Monoliths” in large quantities are presented at WOODBRIDGE. According to Amazon statistics, the most purchased model is T-0019. This is not surprising, because to get a stylish toilet with a double flush of 1-1.6 gallons, WaterSense certification, and a 5-year warranty is a great success. Besides, it has a lot of other advantages:
- Priority equipment. Removed knots that inevitably pose a risk of leaks.
- Simplified assembly. The tank does not need to be installed separately, therefore no connection parts or seals are required.
- Ergonomics. The appliance has been fully thought out for ease of use.
- resistant to wear and tear. External removable parts are made of duroplast resistance to aggressive chemical components.
- The factory set up of the systems. The product comes on sale only after numerous performance tests.
- Durability. Manufacturers claim that the toilet will last at least 25 years.
The only one disadvantage is expensive repairs. Fixing a cistern fitting combined with a bowl is unlikely to work. If there are any problems, the drain unit will have to be changed completely. Therefore, experts recommend buying a second internal system immediately. You can install it even after many years when there will be no analogs on the market.
Modern companies use a variety of materials for the production of toilets.
Porcelain. It includes runaway and bentonite clays, quartz, feldspar, kaolins, dolomites, chalk. The resulting mass is fired twice at 1300-1470 ° C. Such natural and multi-component composition provides increased strength and hygiene. The processed porcelain has a pleasantly smooth surface, minimal percentage of porosity, and water absorption (only 0.5%). Porcelain products are therefore renowned for their mud-repellent properties. In addition, they do not absorb odors and are not covered by yellow deposits over time.
- Sometimes manufacturers use vitreous porcelain. As in the best-selling model TOTO CST744S#01. The word “glass” in a name can give rise to thoughts about a fragile material. However, it is the most reliable type of ceramics. This composition goes through the particle sieving stage, which ensures maximum density. The porcelain is then covered with a mirror-like wear-resistant enamel. It was developed by David Buick himself, an American inventor of the car brand of the same name.
Faience. There are three types of faience for different types of toilets: clay, soft lime and feldspar hard. The first type is usually used to produce sanitary ware. It is made of clay and quartz, and then fired at fairly low temperatures (950-960 ° C). This makes the material porous, with water absorption of 17-21%. This texture is favorable for the absorption of moisture, odors and stains. If there are cracks in the faience, bacteria will accumulate in the pores. To improve its properties, finished products are covered with glaze. However, in shops you can find options without a protective layer. Some firms save on it by using simple grinding. Such toilets are cheap, but it makes no sense to buy them. The surface will quickly turn yellow and become unusable.
It is believed that the suspended porcelain toilet is stronger than a similar model of earthenware. But this statement is conditional. All kinds of pottery can’t stand to be hit. If you drop something heavy on the plumbing, there’ll be damage anyway.
- Metal. Usually, it’s stainless steel. A non-standard choice for home sanitary ware. Metal toilet – a thing quite specific and “state”. It does not breeze with coziness, so such devices are more common at sports venues, stadiums, train stations, parks, airplanes, cafes, hotels, medical facilities, and other public places. They are specifically designed for areas where vandalism may occur and where hygiene requirements are high.
- Stainless Steel is not afraid of corrosion, aggressive chemicals, and is able to tolerate normal contrast temperatures. The homogenous structure of the alloy does not retain odors and makes cleaning easier. Therefore, bacteria do not multiply on the surface. In addition, when you buy a toilet made of metal, you care about the environment, because it can always be sent for recycling. But the most important thing is its durability and vandal-proof characteristics.
- Among the types of toilets stronger than steel models can not be found. They cannot be broken, bent, or damaged. If you are a fan of loft styles or hi-tech, this option is perfect for you. Take a special look at the KOHLER 5402-0 Veil. This is a super-compact smart toilet with a wall-mounted type of installation and an adjustable drain mechanism. You can reduce your water consumption by choosing the jet with the lowest head. The design also includes a seat microlight, deodorization system, and remote control that allows you to control the toilet from a distance. It is a great types of toilets.
Kohler 5402-0 Veil
Plastic. Acrylic covered with a special composition of polyester resins or glass fibre is used in the production of sanitary ware. Such products are usually bought for country houses. They do not spoil from sunlight, have an extremely smooth surface and are characterized by mobility, which provides low weight. However, abrasives and hard brushes should not be used when cleaning the plastic case. Also, the material does not tolerate mechanical stress or high temperatures.
Reinforced acrylic models are also available. They are in demand among owners of small apartments. The products have good durability, are easy to maintain and do not require complicated installation work.
- Granite, marble, onyx, travertine. There are such types of toilets. They make plumbing out of all this splendor, too. Stone toilets have plenty of virtues. First of all, hygiene. It is promoted by the ideal grinding of a surface which becomes unsuitable for life and reproduction of harmful bacteria. Secondly, moisture resistance. The stone does not absorb any liquids and retains its shape even after years of contact with water. Third, chemical stability. Toilet cleaners contain acids and alkali. Under their influence, most synthetic materials begin to break down. On the other hand, solid rocks do not risk anything. Fourthly, resistance to temperature fluctuations, which are often observed in the bathroom. Fifth, the service life of such toilets is almost unlimited.
- But the main trump card of natural stone is luxury and beauty. Classic monochrome toilet pales against the background of the original composition with many shades, shades, veins, and inclusions. You can see this by looking at the pictures of toilets. The marble alone has a huge palette – from white and tender pink to deep black and dark green.
The onyx bathroom fixtures deserve special attention. Most often it is represented in translucent olive-copper tones. Such products create a unique effect of radiance, which is especially important for bathrooms with a natural light source. But if there are no windows, the sun will perfectly replace powerful ceiling lights, LEDs, or sconces.
Nevertheless, marble and onyx sanitary ware are not very popular. The reason is simple: it’s a very expensive pleasure. Even if you use artificial stone instead of natural stone. Such types of toilets are piece goods and are made to order, under an individual project. In addition, some breeds are not resistant to contamination and require careful care.
Way of connection to the sewerage system
The design of the toilet initially determines how it will connect to the sewer. The drain, or as it is also called, the outlet of the toilet, can be of three types of toilets.
Vertical. These products have a built-in siphon and socket. So you don’t have to buy them separately. The device does not take much space. Thanks to the complete set, the vertical toilet can be installed anywhere in the bathroom. The main thing is that the sewer pipe is in the floor slab. Among the advantages of this release can be highlighted:
- Fast and effective flushing. These models usually have more water than others. Thanks to the siphon, effluents flow into the pipe at higher speeds and the bowl is better cleaned.
- Layout options. Problem-free connection expands the design possibilities.
- Disguise communications. Pipes are located directly under the appliance. No need to think of anything to hide them.
- No spatter. Fewer splashes – less need to wash the toilet.
Models with a horizontal release like the KOHLER K-6299-0 require installation near the wall. In this case, the sewer pipe must be installed parallel to the floor. If the location of the riser pipe is not suitable, a suitable diameter corrugation can be used. For example, a section of corrugated plastic pipe with a rubberized seal will allow the structure to be positioned at any angle to the wall and riser pipe. If you have a suitable outlet, the toilet can be installed against the wall. Before installation, you should try on the toilet bowl and mark the holes in the fixings. Then remove the plumbing, drill the holes, insert the plugs, and put the unit back in place by inserting the socket into the silicone-lubricated drain hole.
Skew. The toilets with this issue are leaders in the market. The oblique drain is tilted to the floor. This allows you to connect the device to the sewer without “fitting” the elements, even if there is no fixed point of connection. This is not possible to do with models of horizontal or vertical release, so the oblique has gained huge popularity. Universal model Saniflo 023 is actively bought by both residents of multi-story buildings and owners of country houses.
Vario. The new universal types of toilets. Such models are still hard to find on sale. The outlet edge is as far away from the back as possible so that there is room for any type of socket.
When choosing a model by type of release, you should remember that the toilets are not interchangeable. Without redevelopment of the sewerage, the device can not install a device with a vertical outlet instead of a horizontal, although replacement by a slanting or a variation is quite available. Ideally, you should buy the same type of plumbing, otherwise, you may have problems not only with the installation but also with the operation.
Types of toilets by shape
It depends on this indicator whether and to what extent splashes will be hygienic. There are three main forms of the toilet bowl.
It’s dished or plate. A bowl, a saucer, these names for toilet are all justified. The equipment is equipped with a platform (shelf), visually reminiscent of the object of dishes. On it accumulate, and then eliminated by water flow, waste of life. In this case, the drain hole is always shifted forward. The model is now considered obsolete but is still found in the lines of European and American manufacturers.
- No spatter. Its well is always filled with water to a specific level to avoid droplet splashes during operation.
- 2. Insurance. If a key, smartphone, or any other important object accidentally falls into the toilet, it will not be immediately in the drain but will be delayed on a “plate”.
- Taking care of your health. This kind of plumbing allows you to monitor your stool if you have a problem with your chair. For example, a sharp black color may indicate internal bleeding.
- Water consumption increases.
- Waste can be trapped on a plate and you’ll have to use a ruffle.
- Liquid stagnates on the platform. If the material is not water-resistant enough, rust and odor may occur.
Visor form. In such a bowl there is a straight, flat shelf, which is directed at an angle from the cistern. In profile, it resembles a visor. Drainage is carried out along the walls, which improves the quality of cleaning and helps eliminate odors. The rear part is inclined (approximately 30-45° to the floor). This prevents the formation of a splash. The greater the inclination, the less splash.
Minus the bowl visor is the same as the one on the plate. One or two downhill slopes may not be enough – and again, a ruffle comes to the rescue.
This form is the most hygienic. It also ensures efficient first time flushing, which saves water resources. Its full benefits are demonstrated in the TOTO MS446124CEMG#01. Plus, there’s always water at the bottom of the funnel, which prevents the accumulation of impurities. However, there’s one nuance – a lot of spraying. For this reason, most manufacturers equip funnel-shaped devices with the system “Antisplash”. Previously, it assumed only the presence of a special protrusion blocking the splash, but now the design is complicated. The system includes a narrower drain hole, moved forward or backward; a lower water level in the drain (it usually reaches seven centimeters), a gentle front with a small rim, extra smooth enamel. It is noteworthy that crows bowls are often used in common areas: at railway stations, cinemas, hospitals.
Separately, the models with the rimless bowl are worth mentioning. Pictures of toilets with such features appeared in catalogs recently. They were first introduced by the Japanese company Toto in 2002. The direction was promising – the toilets were put on stream. Medical institutions in Britain were the first to try the advantages of these devices. And since 2014, the production of rimless toilets for private customers have been engaged in other global brands.
- A striking example is the TOTO CST746CSMG#01. What’s good about this type-wc? The classic toilet model has a bezel inside the bowl under which water flows during flushing. Together with it, dirt gets under the bezel, which is difficult to get rid of without special devices. It provokes the formation of mold, swelling, stench. There are no hidden areas in the rimless toilet where the waste is collected. Water just flows down the walls, and the toilet is easy to clean. To avoid large bursts of water, a ceramic breaker works, dividing the total flow into several directions.
- If you choose this model, pay attention to the “Rimless” mark in its specifications. Only the presence of this patented technology guarantees a splash-free flush and overflow.
Type of tank
There are several types of toilets. Tanks are differentiated by several criteria. First of all, the drain mechanism:
- Leverage. Most often found in upper-position blocks and outdated low-position models.
- Rod. The vent valve is opened by lifting a vertical stem whose end exits the top cover. It is used quite rarely.
- Pedal. Here the use of a foot pedal is meant, which drives the flushing mechanism. Such design allows not using hands for contact with elements of the sanitary equipment. This type is often observed in public transport.
- Pneumatic. The device is started by pressing the button of the pneumatic chamber connected to the outlet valve by a flexible hose-air duct.
- Push-button. Drainage is made from the button located on the cistern body, which opens the drain valve through the system of levers.
- Automatic. Performed without any contact with buttons or levers. Device activated by an infrared sensor. Its scope of operation is controlled by remote control or preset via the touch screen.
- Drain without a cistern. These are toilet bowls in which a drain tap has been installed in place of the cistern. Thus, the flush is made directly from the water supply.
- Two-button. The most usual option for modern users. For example, American Standard 2889218.020 offers a choice between 100% and 50% discharge. (0.92 or 1.28 gallons)
American Standard 2889218.020
It should be noted that in the toilets of the last years of release sometimes there are “breather” holes. They are made to avoid creating a vacuum under the lid of the tank.
Buttons and levers have different positions. Therefore, there is a classification by the type of trigger device:
- Sideways. It is used in cisterns installed not on the toilet shelf, but on the wall of a certain height.
- The upper one. The button is located in the middle of the lid.
In the design of the filling valves wc bathroom meaning has a filter to purify water from mechanical impurities. If there is a protection system in the tank, it protects the device against overfilling.
Types of toilets by flush type
The toilet flushing mechanism is of the following kind:
- Horizontal (flat). Water flows in a straight line, without changing the direction of movement. Thus, the flow does not cover the entire perimeter of the bowl – only part of it. The noise of the water is strong enough, there is a splash. This type is rarely found in European and American models but is very common in Russia.
- Circular (with backwash). In this case, the water moves and changes direction, thus washing the entire bowl. For some time the flow goes in a circle, which allows avoiding loud noises and splashes.
- Deep (vertical). Such a toilet has an inclined surface, so the water quickly flows down the neck. This kind of gutter can be in the front, back, or central part. However, regardless of the location of the neck prevents the penetration of unpleasant odors from the sewage riser pipe into the house.
- Cascade. It is considered to be a rare but carefully considered design. In this case, the toilet bowl is cleaned by continuous water flow, that is, simultaneously from all sides. There is no splash, but the water flow, understandably, is large.
- With a shower. Toilet’s names with this flushing technology do not occur as often as one would like. It suggests multiple holes around the perimeter of the bowl. They create a water funnel at the touch of a button, which thoroughly cleans the entire area. The water jets can be directed either at an angle or directly towards the bezel.
Another important point when buying a toilet is the lid. Usually the shops offer two types of products: polypropylene and duroplast. The first variant is notable for its lightness and fragility. Such products do not tolerate serious mechanical stress, but they are often includes the basic set and they can get you almost free of charge. On technical characteristics duroplast unequivocally wins. It is strong enough, wearproof material, capable to sustain the person with any weight. However, a cover made of such a base is much more expensive.
How to choose your types of toilets? Tips & Tricks
Today the market offers a huge amount of sanitary ware. On the Internet, you can even order toilet for two. But making a choice among this variety can be difficult. First of all, you should decide on the option of placing a set of toilet bowls, and then with its internal fittings. For small areas, a good variant will be a monoblock, a compact, corner model. If the wall in your bathroom is strong enough, and the budget allows – take a hanging toilet. You can play with the design by buying a two-section separate toilet. It is inexpensive and will allow you to turn into reality unusual solutions.
Looking through the different names for toilet, examine the manufacturer’s information in detail. Also, keep in mind the quality of the internal fittings that determine the duration and efficiency of the unit. Don’t be lazy to read reviews on the internet, but with many of them (especially positive ones) often missed.
It is also worth paying attention to the additional functions of the product:
Antibacterial coating. Different types of toilets supplements with a layer of silver ions. It protects the cup and rim from harmful microorganisms. However, it should be remembered that the lifetime of such protection is about three to five years. It’s interesting that in Toto MS920CEMFG#01. CEFIONTECT antibacterial coating is used in duet with PreMist. It is a composition that creates a special film that prevents dirt particles from trapping on the surface.
- Prevention of flooding. This function is active when the tank is full of water. It activates the automatic drain system.
- Microlift. A special device to ensure that the toilet lid opens/closes smoothly. It can be compared with a toilet closet driver, which is available in interior doors and furniture sets. The micro lift extends the service life of the seat and the sanitaryware itself. Thus, it prevents cracks and chips, which occur due to the regular fall of the lid.
- Built-in bidet. What is a toilet with a hygienic shower? This design includes a retractable spout with a nozzle or a nozzle built into the toilet bowl. You can solve two hygiene tasks at the same time and save on purchasing a separate bidet. Perfect for a bathroom with a small footprint. There are also models which fits with an electronic bidet lid, such as TOTO SW2044 # 01. Soft heated seat, dryer, automatic air deodorizer, pulsating water supply – that’s not a complete list of benefits. At the touch of a button, your trip to the toilet becomes a SPA session.
TOTO SW2044 # 01
Double flush button. In other words, the regulator of water resources consumed by the toilet. These types of toilets not only benefits your wallet but also the city as a whole.
- To select the right type-wc, think about the correct height for the product. Especially if you have a large family and children of different ages. It is noteworthy that every year the models “grow” by 5-7 millimeters and can not be guided “by eye”. It is necessary to “try on” the model before buying.
- Depending on the country of manufacture, you can find devices from 42 to 50 cm high. To see if the toilet is right for you, sit down and appreciate how comfortable it is and whether you can relax your muscles.
- Types of toilets with a wall-mounted type of unit are not uncommon. But no matter which model you choose, always make sure that there is approximately 7-8 inches between the bottom of the unit and the floor. If your household is tall, you can install the toilet higher, otherwise lower it. Types of toilets.
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